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This item is a game information page
It belongs to categories: Orthodox chess, 
It was last modified on: 2006-10-29
 By M  Winther. Korean ChessThis item is a game information page
It belongs to categories: Orthodox chess, 
It was last modified on: 2006-10-29
 By M  Winther.. Korean Chess: presentation plus a strong Zillions implementation.[All Comments] [Add Comment or Rating]
M Winther wrote on 2006-11-09 UTC
In his Encyclopedia of Chess Variants, 1994, David Pritchard briefly tells
that: 'A player may pass his turn, hence no stalemate or zugzwang.'
(p.164).

In his article 'Janggi Addenda', Abstract Games 15, Autumn 2003, Malcolm
Maynard writes: 'Passing turns. It was not mentioned in the article that
in Janggi, players *can* pass their turn, unlike in other forms of Chess.
The official rule of the Korean Janggi Association is that players may
pass their turns at any time. However, since a player would normally pass
a turn to avoid being forced into moving into a losing position, many
players interpret the rule to allow a player to pass only to avoid
checkmate or stalemate. 
(Thanx to Mr. Michaelsen).

Gary Gifford wrote on 2006-11-07 UTC
I used a computer to translate the German text below (from preceding
comment), regarding passing being always allowed.

Original Text:
Im koreanischen Schach gibt es keinen Zugzwang. Sollte es für einen
Spieler taktisch ungünstig sein, irgendeinen Stein, insbesondere seinen
König, zu bewegen, dreht er ihn einfach um. Dies gilt als Zug, denn alle
Figuren sind ja beidseitig beschriftet. 

Translation:
In Korean chess there is no course obligation. If it should be tactically
unfavorable for a player, any stone [piece], in particular its king to
move it turns it simply [flips it over]. This is considered as course,
because all figures are reciprocally marked.
-----------------------------------------------------------
Should we play Korean Chess in a tournament, rated game, or even a fun
game - it will be good to know which of the 3 passing rules should be
implemented.

Alfred Pfeiffer wrote on 2006-11-06 UTC
In the book
David Wurman: 'Chinesisches Schach, Koreanisches Schach', 1991, Verlag Harry Deutsch, Frankfurt am Main, Thun, ISBN 3-8171-1166-5, (German)
the passing is allowed anytime.

Here is the text to this 'Sonderregel' (special rule):
Im koreanischen Schach gibt es keinen Zugzwang. Sollte es für einen Spieler taktisch ungünstig sein, irgendeinen Stein, insbesondere seinen König, zu bewegen, dreht er ihn einfach um. Dies gilt als Zug, denn alle Figuren sind ja beidseitig beschriftet.

M Winther wrote on 2006-11-06 UTC
I chose to implement Roleigh Martin's rule as alternative variants (uploaded just now). It's frustrating that there exists no book about openings and endgames, etc, in this noble game. Somebody in this community ought to take upon himself to research this game and write a book. /Mats

Gary Gifford wrote on 2006-11-06 UTC
I thank Mats for bringing the very important PASS issue into view.  It
seems 3 different Pass rules have been unearthed.  The first 2 of the pass
rules are to prevent the King from moving into check:

1) Stewart Culin's - Requires King only piece on board before pass is
allowed.
2) Roleigh Martin's - Other pieces allowed on board, but if they can move
legally, you still can't pass
3)Other Rule - you can pass anytime

Personally, # 2 above, seems the most logical to me.

M Winther wrote on 2006-11-06 UTC
In Stewart Culin's 'Korean Games With Notes on the Corresponding Games of
China and Japan' he says:

'The king on the losing side is allowed yet another privilege. If he is
the only piece on his side, and if his moving would greatly endanger him,
he is allowed, as the equivalent of a move, to turn over and remain in his
original position.'

So passing is only allowed if the king is the only remaining piece. This
is even stricter than Roleigh Martin's rules. So now I don't know what
to believe. /Mats

Gary Gifford wrote on 2006-11-04 UTC
The Rules for Korean Chess, Draft by Roleigh Martin (c)1994,1995 is the
most thorough of Korean Chess Rules I have seen.  I quote from them
regarding 'Passing.'

Rule 7c
   Unlike Chinese Chess, if you have no other move to make,
   except to put your King in check or checkmate, you can
   'pass.'  In other words, your King can stand still, if it
   stays in safety and there are no other pieces it can move
   at all (regardless if those other pieces would be
   captured or not) and if it would otherwise (if a move had
   to be made) cause the king to move into check or
   checkmate.  Gollon states that one declares his pass by
   turning his King over, upside down, on the same spot.

Link:    http://www.xmission.com/~gastown/afi/koreanch.htm

In regard to programs that play by correct rules, it is not always the case.
I played a Chinese Battle Chess that incorrectly allowed kings to face each other.

M Winther wrote on 2006-11-04 UTC
I decided that *it is* allowed to pass a move whenever you want. I tested a
DOS program downloadable from the Internet (jangki.zip). This program is
written by the Korean Hak Jong Lee, and I assume that he knows the correct
rules. In this game, pass is allowed all the time. However, the English
rules file, provided with the zip-file, says that pass is only allowed if
no other move available. The rules file is written by Roleigh Martin, and
I assume that he got it wrong. If I'm right, then the following article
must be corrected:
http://www.chessvariants.org/oriental.dir/koreanchess.html

Those interested ought to download my Zillions implementation again,
because I have altered the pass rule. Korean Chess seems less
'populistic' than Chinese Chess, which is much about mating the king. In
Korean Chess play occurs over the whole board, and games take longer to
play. It's more strategical, it seems.

Anonymous wrote on 2006-11-04 UTC

I decided that *it is* allowed to pass a move whenever you want. I tested a DOS program downloadable from the Internet (jangki.zip). This program is written by the Korean Hak Jong Lee, and I assume that he knows the correct rules. In this game, pass is allowed all the time. However, the English rules file, provided with the zip-file, says that pass is only allowed if no other move available. The rules file is written by Roleigh Martin, and I assume that he got it wrong. If I'm right, then the following article must be corrected:

http://www.chessvariants.org/oriental.dir/koreanchess.html

Those interested ought to download my Zillions implementation again, because I have altered the pass rule. Korean Chess seems less 'populistic' than Chinese Chess, which is much about mating the king. In Korean Chess play occurs over the whole board, and games take longer to play. It's more strategical, it seems.


M Winther wrote on 2006-11-03 UTC
Is it, or is it not allowed to pass a move whenever you want in Korean Chess, or are you only allowed to pass when you can't move a piece (that's how I implemented it). The scarce sources on the Internet seem to say different things.

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