Eugen Laukamp (email removed contact us for address) t.uni-c.dk has sent me the rules of two chess variants, or Chessoids, as he calls them, called SuperPawn, and NeutronChess. One is invented by himself; the other was invented by a friend. Both are quite complex chess variants, with elaborate rules.
Below, you find Eugens description of these two games, with some small editing done by Hans Bodlaender.
The Chessoids came into being as a consequence of knowledge gained from early and latter attempts to make my own classification of the boardgame families, as well as my own analysis of what the structural similarities was between those members of the chess-family, that I knew at the time.
With any friend that I could get interested, I made an attempt to dissect and classify any structure or item that I could identify, even inventing names such as retroomnigonal to quickly describe for myself what I meant (in case you wonder: retro is a term relevant to the base of the board, while omni, meaning all, describes the possible moves of a Queen. Thus it would relate to both the two diagonals going "backward" as well as the orthogonal line going "backward"). Those were some of the "tools" for inventing Chessoids.
What the inspiration were, is harder to say; it could be such commonly known chess-variants as Cylinder-chess (where you theoretically join the a-file of the board to the h-file, to play on a cylinder), or "Bughouse", known in my country (Denmark) as "Indian-" or "Baby-"chess (where two players with two ordinary chessboards and different colours, form a side who plays another. Any piece taken from an opponent can then be entered instead of an ordinary move, subject to various local rules. Quite similar to the rule in Shogi). It could also be my discovery of fairy-chess. I can't remember if that was a trigger or just an enhancement. But I know that it were the pieces and the boards that interested me, not the fairy-problems.
I have been interested in asymmetrical games forever (and frustrated by any attempt to make a perfect one in a boardgame). SuperPawn is not a truly asymmetrical game (as I define it, the lay-out would be different for both sides, the number of pieces different, the values and possible some of the rules), but it has some asymmetrical features; the pieces has the same corresponding values on both sides, but they are slightly different in structure. The main pieces and the "pawns" are divided into a number of style/value groups and the players each generate a secret selection and setup behind a screen, where they have to select a fixed number of pieces from each style/value group and place them on preordained rows, but otherwise only according to their own design.
SuperPawn has been modified many times, as my taste grew more refined. The present version is from 1993.
It was invented in the mid-seventies by a good friend I had then, René Boyle, shortly before we lost touch, due to moving about. To my knowledge it was never played, before the early nineties when I had a second look at it, and designed a set of pieces for it (I also made a small addition to a rule). It turned out to be one of the most smashing and original Chessoids I have ever come across. He had married a slightly changed set of chesspieces to the basic formula of the Hierarchical game family (the one with Stratego). The basic Hierarchical idea is that the pieces is placed in a value-hierarchy towards each other, where a piece can take an opposing piece of the same or lower value. Usually it goes in a ring, so that the weakest piece can take the strongest. However, this basic idea does not state how many values should exist, how many pieces in each value, what the value consist of, etc etc.. And these are the concepts he has played with.
Conventions for describing pieces and moves
In order to describe the pieces and their moves, without drawings, I would like to establish a few conventions: Any piece described is described in relation to the base of the board on its own side:
- Used as a prefix. It describes possible, legal moves forward. Thus Prodiagonally means "all possible legal moves, diagonally forward".
- Also used as a prefix. It describes possible, legal moves backwards. Therefore Retrodiagonally means "all possible, legal moves, diagonally backward".
- Describes all possible, legal moves, by a rook-like piece, even if its range is only one square.
- Describes all possible, legal moves, by a Queen- or Kinglike piece.
- Describes a piece who moves or takes by repeating its basic move along a "riding line":A Queen is a Kingrider. A Nightrider repeats the move of a Knight. It must be possible to make a straight line through the landingspots in the riding-line. A rider can only jump in its basic move, and only if that is a jumping move. The landing-squares on the riding-line must always be free.
- My word for any kind of jumping piece, like the Knight.
All my actual pieces (except for jumping pieces like a knight, and specialised pieces like Canon and Nightrider) are based on an eight-armed standing figurine*. For descriptive purposes we'll number the arms like an eight-hour clock, with the number eight on top. (Arm 8 would be pro-orthogonal. Arm 3 and 5 retro-diagonal).
If it has thick arms, it is a major piece, like a Queen. If it has thin arms it is a "minor" piece, and can only go from one to a few steps at a time, like a King. To make a minor piece, like for instance the "Gold general" from Shogi, we simply remove arms number 3 and 5 from a figurine with thin arms. A Rook is a figurine with the thick arms 1, 3, 5 and 7 removed.
Any figurine with thin arms is stipulated to be able to go only 1 square along any remaining arm. We will call those 1,0 2,0 3,0 and so on (for all practical purposes however, the ,0 will be mute). If a piece with thin arms can go more than 1 square along one or more of its arms, the arm on the figurine would have extra lengths of "arm" attached to it. For descriptive purposes however, we'll call them 8,1 8,2 8,3 and so on. The reason I stress this, is because I use a simple colour-coding system to describe what each arm is capable of. And each arm may have different capabilities for each step (or square). The base of the figurine is always made a bit substantial, for weight, but also because the colour of it describes the side. Blue for one side, and red for the other, has turned out to work well.
The colourcodes of the arms of red is as follows:
Red = movement only.
Gold = taking only.
White = moving and taking.
Black = Is used for very complex arms (none in SuperPawn or NeutronChess).
The colourcodes of the arms of blue is as follows:
Blue = movement only.
Silver = taking only.
Yellow = moving and taking.
Light green = Is used for very complex arms (none in SuperPawn or NeutronChess).
The values of the different pieces is calculated by counting the maximum squares covered by that piece at its most favourable position on the board. This is done as a double-count where the hypothetical number of squares covered when taking, is added to the hypothetical number of squares covered when moving. It is therefore possible to field quite different pieces on each side, that nevertheless have corresponding values. Since I have had to play ordinary people with no special interest in exotic variants, I have tried to exercise as much restraint as I could.
Is played on a Tamerlane-chessboard. This is one of the ancient Big-chess forms. It measures 10x11 squares, with an extra square, the Citadel, placed where b0 and i12 would be. (Note that the board is obtained by rotating the board, as used with Tamerlane chess 90 degrees.) The rows with 10 squares face each player, and for reasons of notes we name them "a" to "j". For the same reasons we call the files; 1 to 11. There are no Kings in Superpawn. The game is won when one player succeed in placing a piece in the opponents Citadel. The players are not allowed to enter their own Citadels with any piece. Generally the more defensive major- and minor pieces has been allocated the Blue player. They have the same value however. For this reason Blue always begins. Unless otherwise stated the basic rules of any chessvariant is valid.
There are four groupings of pieces in SuperPawn:
- The minor pieces, called Ants. Each player has seven that are alike, and about the same number of single Ants, that are all different. He is required to use eight. He is also required to place them on his third row. From his left to right, leaving two open squares to the far right. Ants are not pawns, nd do not promote.
- The major pieces, who are classical hunter/mover pieces (like the pawn in orthodox chess they take in one way and move in another). One half of them is composed of Rider takers and Jumper movers, and the other half the other way around. They form four different sub-groups, with more pieces in each group, than the player is allowed to field. A preordained number from each group, has to be chosen. The six Major pieces chosen, are placed together with the two pieces from the fourth group on each players first row. From the players left to right, leaving two open squares to the far right, and the second row, empty.
- Any taken piece, who immediately converts to a Dead piece, that has to be placed somewhere on the board, in the same move (free move). It cannot move, cannot be taken by ordinary pieces, and it blocks them. A jumping piece can jump over them. They can never be placed in either Citadel.
- The last group, manipulates the dead pieces. One, the Sexton (Gravedigger) buries them altogether. The other one, the Mortician, can "take" a dead piece, who must then be placed on any free square, by the player, in the same move (free move). They both move and take like Queens. They have no effect on anything but dead pieces. They can of course be taken by any Ant or Major piece.
The Individual Ants
Each has the value 7 (see value above). Each has a serial-number, (I usually write it in the base of the piece), that are used to separate it from other ants in other games, with other values. The last digit in the serial-number, is used in the notes to separate the chosen ants from each other. Although the serial-number does not differentiate between blue and red ants, they don't duplicate.Generally the more defensive Ants has been chosen for blue. See also the notes on "colour-coding" above.
- Missing arms: 2-3-5 and 6. Blue arms: 8. Yellow arms: 1-4 and 7. The basic Blue Ant of which there are seven.
- Missing arms: 2-6 and 8. Blue arms: 3-4 and 5. Yellow arms: 2 and 7.
- Missing arms: 2-3-5 and 6. Blue arms: 4 and 8. Yellow arms: 1 and 7. Silver arm: 4,1.
- Missing arms: 1 and 7. Blue arms: 2-3-4-5 and 6. Yellow arm: 8.
- Missing arms: 2-6 and 8. Blue arms: 3 and 5. Yellow arms: 1 and 7. Silver arm: 4.
- Missing arms: 4. Blue arms: 1-3-5 and 7. Silver arms: 2-6 and 8.
- Missing arms: 2 and 6. Blue arms: 1-4 and 7. Silver arms: 3-5-8 and 8,1.
- Missing arms: 2-3-5-6. Red arm: 4. White arms: 1-7 and 8. The basic Red Ant of which there are seven.
- a-7-dMissing arms: 2-4 and 6. Red arms: 3-5 and 8. White arms: 1 and
- Missing arms: 2-3-5 and 6. Red arms: 1 and 7. White arms: 8 and 8,1.
- Missing arms: 3 and 5. Red arms: 2-4 and 6. Golden arms: 1 and 7. White arm: 8.
- Missing arms: 3 and 5. Red arms: 2-4-6-8 and 8,1. Golden arms: 1 and 7.
- Missing arms: 2 and 6. Red arms: 3-4 and 5. Golden arms: 1 and 7. White arm: 8.
- Missing arms: 2 and 6. Red arms: 1-3-4-5 and 7. Golden arms: 8 and 8,1.
- Missing arms: 2-3-5 and 6. Red arms: 4-8,1 and 8,2. Golden arms: 1 and 7. White arm: 8.
The Major Pieces
The "Superpawns" is assembled of just four riders, and just three jumpers. I will therefore describe those separately. Each of the superpawns is a rider-mover and a jumper-taker or vice-versa:
The riders that make one half of the Hunter/Mover-pieces in SuperPawn have clerical names as they can all be seen as strengthened Bishops. Two off them are half Bishop, half Rook. Since the symbol of the Rook is a castle, these riders have been given clerical names from fortified orders. As for the Ants, the actual pieces are represented by a standing figurine*. This one a double one with thick arms. It has the Mover at the bottom (near to the base), and the Hunter on top. Description as for the ants, except that all arms are the same colour: If it is a Mover it has the same colour as the base; and if it's a Hunter they are all gold (for the red player) and silver (for the blue player). See the notes on colour-coding:
Lama (LA): Missing arms: 1-4 and 7.
Prior (PR): Missing arms: 2-6 and 8.
Abbot (AB): Missing arms: 3-5 and 8.
Kardinal (KA): Missing arms: 2-4 and 6.
If the jumper is of the same type as a knight, I give them a figurine
symbol*, that represents 1/4 of its move-potential:
For the Knight this is "Y". If you let the base be at the intersection of a + and repeated the symbol on all four arms, you would get the full move-potential:
Knight (NI): Symbol: Y. Like a knight in orthodox chess.
Tarantula (TA): Symbol: Two Y's, one on top of the other. Instead of jumping 1 square orthogonally + 1 square diagonally, like a Knight, it can chose between going 1 OR 2 orthogonally, before adding 1 diagonally.
The third jumper is different:
Spider (SP): Symbol: 2! : The symbol says it all!: The Spider can jump to any square that has one empty square between it's new and old square.
The Individual Superpawns
All movers are mentioned first. NIPR therefore means Knight mover / Prior taker:
Group one: Blue has to choose two and discard one: LATA-ABSP-PRSP.
Group two: Blue has to choose two and discard one: SPLA-SPPR-TALA.
Group three: Blue must choose AND discard one: PRNI-LANI.
Group four: Blue must choose AND discard one: NIAB-NIPR.
Group one: Red must choose two and discard one: LASP-KATA-ABTA.
Group two: Red must choose two and discard one: SPAB-TAAB-TAKA.
Group three: Red must choose AND discard one: ABNI-KANI.
Group four: Red must choose AND discard one: NIKA-NILA.
The Obligatory Major Pieces
The last group of two pieces. They both move and take like Queens.Their figurines are "normal" symbol-pieces (where you have to know what the symbol represents, as opposed to the aforementioned "Picturines", where the symbols "tells" you how the piece moves). They manipulate the dead pieces. One, the Sexton (Gravedigger) "buries" them altogether.It's symbol is a skull. The other one, the Mortician, can "take" a dead piece, who must then be placed on any free square, by the player, in the same move (free move). They have no effect on anything but dead pieces. It's symbol is a sandwatch where all the sand has nearly run out. They can of course be taken by any Ant or Major piece.
These have been mentioned above.
- Each player selects a number of major and minor pieces, according to fixed rules, and sets them up, in secret, behind a screen, on each players first and third row. The minor pieces in front.
- The object of the game is to place a LIVING (NOT dead) piece in the enemy citadel, situated at b0 and i12 on a Tamerlane (ancient big-chess variant) board measuring 10 x 11 squares.The players are not allowed to enter their own citadel with any pieces.There are no king.
- Unless otherwise stated, the rules common to other chess-variants goes.
- Any piece taken, is immediately converted to a DEAD PIECE who MUST be placed on an empty square, in the same move.
- A special group of major pieces can manipulate these dead pieces.
- A draw is possible, and legal, but very uncommon.
*) I have put the star at several places where the pieces were mentioned. That is because I thought it might be interesting to know for some people how to make them. I have developed them over many years, and I think that they are close to ideal now in their concept: You see: I've had to play people a lot of times, who were just ordinary chess-players, and not fans. And that makes them very impatient when it comes to learning complex rules(and remembering complex pieces, where they had only some symbol to remember them by). I thought some of the other people, reading your pages, might have had similar problems. Forced by this pressure I gradually invented a kind of pictogram, that informs you about most of its structure at a glance. The pictogram then made it possible to differentiate the arms (directions) in a way that would be very impractical in a traditional symbolic piece. And they work extremely well. Let me tell you how to make them:
How to make pictogram pieces
I make all my pieces out of the same plastic that they use for model . That makes it possible to make them lightweight, yet strong. And I always use some mass-manufactured product (Which I'm always on the look-out for) because the come in more slick and attractive shapes, than I could possibly make myself:
The Major Pieces
The major pieces are made of a piece of plastic that are used as a spacer between tiles, when making bathrooms. But be careful! They come in several kinds of plastic, and not all can be glued by that fantastic model cement. However, when you find the right kind, it is very inexpensive, and yet attractive. It is also very easy to cut and reassemble with the aforementioned glue, and some practice. When you buy it, the shape is like an "x" or "+", depending how you turn it and that ought to tell you all you need to know. If not, then just ask me.
The Minor Pieces (Ants & others)
The Ants are made of two McDonald coffee-swizzle sticks, who are cemented together.A bit of the stem is left as a body for the picturegram. All parts that are not needed, is removed with an electronics cutter. These make a straight, clean cut with one side of the beak. If only the stem is removed from the other side, we have a six-armed pictogram figurine left (the missing arms are # 2 & 6) who are very elegant to look at, with flowing curves, almost Jugend-style. If the arms 2 & 6 has to be added, one just takes them from an extra swizzle-stick. Any thinkable ant, can be made out of the basic figure. Other minor pieces can be made from the aforementioned spacers, if one is lucky enough to find it in one of the smaller versions. They are a bit rare in that size, so one has to be persistent!
The Base of the Pictogram Figurines
The base is very important. It has to have some bulk, because the colour of it tells of the ownership, and if its not bulky enough, the colour used in the arms can become too dominant, and make the pieces look kitchy, instead of effective. The bases can be made from a lot of different objects, as long as it is that same model-airplane plastic. If one can afford it, layered, glued-together pokerchips, in varying sizes, make the bases look very attractive. Note that the glue, while bonding almost immediately, only gains its full strength after about 24 hours!
The Dead Pieces
The dead pieces can be easily made by separating the little spoon, from the McDonald swizzle-sticks, and removing all traces of the stem. It is then glued on to a round plastic-jeton, only slightly larger. A piece of one arm of one of the tile-spacers is then glued on at the broad end, as a tiny tombstone. The tombstone is left white, when painting the spoon brown, and the jeton green. And voila!: A tiny grave with newly turned dirt! (Very Gothic!).
NeutronChess is played on a regular chess-board (8x8). It can be won in four different ways:
- The Organic King can be mated, by other organic pieces, like in other chess- or chessoid variants.
- A stalemate of the Organic King, is also counted as a win (like in Chinese chess).
- If the same sides two Plutonium pieces, at any time occupies two adjacent squares, on the enemy half, it is immediately counted as a Bomb-win.
- Whenever a Plutonium piece occupies a square on the enemy half, that square is contaminated, for the rest of the game, and cannot be occupied. but only by the enemy! For the same side it is a safe square! If the Organic King at any time should sneak its way into the enemy half and enter such a square, the game is immediately and radiantly won!
The pieces are divided into three different groups. Each group will be described separately below, with the focus on how each group reacts to each of the opponents three groups:
Organic Pieces Against Organic Pieces
- Organic pieces can operate against other Organic pieces as if it were regular chesspieces, if these are not placed on squares that are adjacent to enemy Radioactive pieces. If that is the case they become untouchable.
- If a Screen-piece decontaminates the square (=would be able to go to the square) it makes it accessible for an Organic piece (the enemy Organic piece can be taken even if standing next to a radioactive piece)!
Organic Pieces against Screen-pieces
Organic pieces can do absolutely nothing against enemy Screen-pieces.
Organic pieces against radioactive pieces
If a Screen-piece decontaminates a square (=would be able to go to that square) next to a Radioactive piece, it cannot go there itself, but allows an Organic piece to go there: Should the Organic piece do so, it would force the Radioactive piece to move, since Organic- and Radioactive pieces are not allowed to occupy adjacent squares for more than a half-move. Should the square be adjacent to more than one Radioactive piece, the opponent must move one of them (of his own choice, unless the Organic king is put in check at the same time) away, while the rest dies, and are removed from the game (this forced move is a very essential part of the game).
Screen-pieces against screen-pieces
They can do absolutely nothing to each other!
Screen-pieces against organic pieces
Screen-pieces can't do anything to Organic pieces either!
Screen-pieces against radioactive pieces
- A Screen-piece is not allowed to occupy an adjacent square to an enemy Radioactive piece.
- A Screen-piece can be radiation-burned(=taken) by a radioactive piece, if at least one other radioactive piece is radiating on the square occupied by the Screen-piece (=would be able to go there) at the same time, and the Screen-piece does not stand adjacent to a friendly non-radioactive piece. If the Radioactive pieces,that are able to burn/radiate combined, are more numerous than the Screen-piece/nonradioactive friends, the burn could still take place, in which case...
- We must move one of the remaining non-radioactive pieces (of our own choice, unless one of them is the Organic king) that are placed on adjacent squares to the burn, while the rest dies! Any Radioactive pieces on adjacent squares, can remain, if they so choose.
- Screen-pieces decontaminates squares(=If it would be able to go to that square) that are adjacent to Radioactive pieces, and makes them accessible for Organic pieces.
- Two Screen-pieces can damp an enemy Radioactive piece out of existence (=remove it from the game), if each of them decontaminates two adjacent squares of the Radioactive piece at the same time. (It does not have to be four different squares)!
Radioactive pieces against radioactive pieces
- Uranium can ONLY take Plutonium. And ONLY if it is on a square that are NOT adjacent to ANY non-radioactive pieces!
- Plutonium on the other hand can ONLY take Uranium. And likewise ONLY if it is on a square that are NOT adjacent to ANY non-radioactive pieces!
- If they so dare, they may occupy an adjacent square to any enemy Radioactive piece, if said square is not adjacent to any non-radioactive pieces at the same time!
Radioactive pieces against organic pieces
- The only time a Radioactive piece is allowed to occupy a square adjacent to a non-radioactive piece (and remain there) is when it takes a Screen-piece!
- Radioactive pieces can never BURN (=take) an Organic piece directly!
- However, in the example in #1, the opponent would be forced to retreat with an organic piece standing adjacent to the burned Screen-piece (as it can never be more than one, a Radioactive piece can NEVER burn an Organic piece INDIRECTLY either).
Radioactive pieces against screen-pieces
- A Radioactive piece is not allowed to occupy an adjacent square to an enemy Screen-piece.
- A Screen-piece can be RADIATION-BURNED(=taken) by a radioactive piece, IF at least one other radioactive piece is RADIATING on the square occupied by the Screen-piece (=would be able to go there) at the same time, AND the Screen-piece does not stand adjacent to a friendly non-radioactive piece. IF the Radioactive pieces,that are able to BURN/RADIATE combined, are more numerous than the Screen-piece/nonradioactive friends, the BURN could still take place, in which case...
- The opponent MUST move ONE of the remaining non-radioactive pieces (of his own choice, unless one of them is the Organic king) that are placed on adjacent squares to the BURN, while the rest dies! Any Radioactive pieces on adjacent squares, can remain, if they so choose.
- A Radioactive piece can be DAMPED out of existence (=removed from the game), by two enemy Screen-pieces IF each of them DECONTAMINATES (=would be able to go to)two adjacent squares of the Radioactive piece AT THE SAME TIME (It does NOT have to be four DIFFERENT squares)!
The individual organic pieces
THE ORGANIC ANTS have the value 12 (see "value" under "Description - conventions"). It's a pictogram-figurine with the thin arms 2 and 6 removed. The arms are white (see "colourcode","eight-armed standing figurine" and "thick arms-thin arms", under "Description - conventions"). The Red and the Blue player have six each, that are placed on the rows b3-g3, and b6-g6.
Ants do not promote.
THE ORGANIC FLEA has the choice of one or two squares orthogonally. It may jump. It has the same symbol as a rook; "+" except for a dot in the intersection to indicate that it's a jumper. The Red and Blue player has two each, placed on b1, g1, b8 and g8.
THE ORGANIC CRICKET is exactly like the Organic flea in all things, except that it moves diagonally instead of orthogonally. The Red and Blue player has two each, placed on c1, f1, c8 and f8.
THE ORGANIC NIGHTKING is a combination of a Knight and a King (from orthodox chess). Except that the "King"-part only moves like a King. Other than that, the piece has no royal powers(no risk of it being mated). The player is free to choose between the two. It's symbol is an eight-armed figure with thin arms, nested in the arms of a "Y" (see the symbol for the Knight in SuperPawn). The Red and Blue player has two each, placed on b2, g2, b7 and g7.
THE ORGANIC KING is just like a King in orthodox chess.Plus it's organic properties, as they were explained under each group above. See also the victory conditions in "NeutronChess part one", as the Organic king figures prominently in three of the four victory-possibilities. The Red Organic king starts on d8 and the Blue Organic king on e1 (note that they do not mirror each other)! NOTE: There are two special rules for the Organic king that is unique to it:
- The Organic king can enter an own contaminated square on the enemy half, thereby winning the game immediately, EVEN IF THAT SQUARE IS ADJACENT TO AN ENEMY RADIOACTIVE PIECE!
- The Organic king can be taken directly by an enemy Organic piece EVEN IF IT IS ADJACENT TO ONE OF IT'S OWN RADIOACTIVE PIECES!
It is the mating situation, that has gotten total precedence by René !
There are two on each side. Each move like a Knight. Their symbol is a "Y" that "cuts" through a semi-opaque jeton (to symbolise their screening capabilities) Another semi-opaque jeton is placed upright between the arms of the "Y". The Red and Blue player has two each, placed on d2,e2,d7 and e7.
The radioactive pieces
PLUTONIUM moves like a Knight. It's symbol is a "Y" with a skull between the arms.The Red and Blue player has two each, placed on c2, f2, c7 and f7.
NOTE: Plutonium figures prominently in two of the four victory-possibilities, which makes it a very important piece indeed!
URANIUM moves like a queen. It's symbol is an eight-armed figurine with thick arms, and a skull on top.
NOTE: Uranium may NOT jump over a contaminated enemy square EVEN IF IT IS UNOCCUPIED!
The base of the three groups
To make separation of the three groups easier, it is recommended to differentiate the height of the bases, between the three groups: I have found that it works well to make the Organic pieces one-tiered, the Radioactive pieces two-tiered and the Screen-pieces three-tiered. I separate the tiers with a small jeton. It makes the bases attractive as well as makes them more recognisable.
The contaminated squares
Enough has been said about them, except: Coloured squares of plastic or cardboard should be kept handy, to mark them. I have never exceeded the need for four, for either colour. Even if it's theoreticallyy possible.
Punishment for mistakes
NeutronChess can be quite complex to play especially for novices. Therefore mistakes occur until one gets the hang of it. The following rules have been formulated to resolve these mistakes in a friendly spirit:
- If a piece is placed on an illegal square, by oversight, and the mistake is discovered too late, it must be placed on the backline in it's own homeland, by the opponent, as close to one of the corner squares as possible. At once!
- If the blame can not be placed, but both players has pieces in illegal positions, the player whose turn it is, moves the first of his opponents pieces to his backline, as described under "1". Then his opponent does the same to one of HIS illegal pieces, and so on, until the situation isn't illegal anymore. For either of them.
Text by Eugen Laukamp. Some editing by Hans Bodlaender.
WWW page created: January 24, 1996. Last modified: April 16, 1998.