The Chess Variant Pages



                                 ** 
  
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                CHESS PIECES IN THE LOTUS ENVIRONMENT
    
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                         Copyright (c) 1998
  
                           by david moeser
  
                                ****
  
                                 **
  
  
  
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
                          =================
 
 
CHAPTER :I:  INTRODUCTION
=========================   
   1.0    Overview
   2.0    General Information  
   2.1    Chess Variants Information
   3.0    Algebraic Notation
   3.1    Note About Squares
 
CHAPTER :II:  SUMMARY 
=====================
   4.0    Recap: The List of Pieces
  
CHAPTER :III:  CHESS PIECES
===========================
  A1.0    Alfil
  A1.1    Sample Alfil Moves
  A2.0    Alfilrider
  A2.1    Sample Alfilrider Move
  A3.0    Archbishop
  A3.1    Sample Archbishop Move
  B1.0    Bishop
  B1.1    Sample Bishop Move
  C1.0    Colonel
  C1.1    Sample Colonel Moves
  C2.0    Counselor
  C3.0    Crook
  C3.1    Sample Crook Move
  D1.0    Dabbaba
  D1.1    Possible Dabbaba Cells
  D1.2    Sample Dabbaba Moves
  E1.0    Enhanced-Rook
  E1.1    Sample Enhanced-Rook Move
  F1.0    Ferz
  F1.1    Sample Ferz Moves
  F1.2    Ferz: Historical Note
  G1.0    General
  G1.1    Sample General Moves
  H1.0    Haxxaba
  H1.1    Possible Haxxaba Cells
  H1.2    Sample Haxxaba Moves
  H2.0    Hexrider
  K1.0    King
  K1.1    Sample King Move
  K1.2    More Sample King Moves
  K2.0    Knight
  K2.1    Sample Knight Move
  L1.0    Lotusrider
  L1.1    Sample Lotusrider Move
  L2.0    Lotussa
  L2.1    Sample Lotussa Move
  O1.0    Orthodonter
  O1.1    Possible Orthodonter Cells
  O1.2    Sample Orthodonter Moves
  O2.0    Ouroboros
  O2.1    Sample Ouroboros Move
  P1.0    Pawn
  P1.1    Pawn Movement
  P1.2    Special Pawn Movement Situations
  P1.2.1  Hexagons
  P1.2.2  Deadends
  P1.3    Pawn Capturing
  P1.4    Special Pawn Capturing Situations
  P1.4.1  Same Rank
  P1.4.2  Deadends
  P1.5    Pawn Promtion
  Q1.0    Queen
  Q1.1    Sample Queen Move
  R1.0    Retreatable Pawn
  R2.0    Rook
  R2.1    Sample Rook Move
  S1.0    Squeen
  S1.1    Sample Squeen Move
  S2.0    Squirrel
  S2.1    Sample Squirrel Move
  W1.0    Wazir
  W1.1    Sample Wazir Moves
  W2.0    Wyvern
  W2.1    Sample Wyvern Move
   
  
                     CHAPTER :I:  INTRODUCTION
                     =========================
  
  
   1.0  OVERVIEW
   =============
   
   Lotus-39 is a chess game played on a lotus board consisting of 39
squares, called cells.  The rules of the game are substantially the 
same as Regular Chess.  Except for one piece, Lotus-39 uses estab-
lished chess pieces used in the present or past in Regular Chess, and 
the movements of the pieces are as analogous to the concepts of Regu-
lar Chess as possible.  A regular chess set can be used. 
    
  
   2.0  GENERAL INFORMATION: VERSION 1.0
   =====================================
 
   Lotus-39 Chess was invented by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
USA, in June 1998 for submission in the 1998 Chess Variants Contest.
This article is being published as of December 10, 1998, along with
other articles detailing additional aspects of Lotus Chess.  Titles
included in this set are:
 
        1. LOTUS-39 CHESS.  Rules for playing the game.  (See file
for Version 1.0)
 
        2. THE LOTUS BOARD: NOTATION & DIRECTIONAL CONCEPTS.  Details
on these subjects: 
        *  Notation for the lotus board.
        *  Vectors and directional concepts.
        *  Orthogonality and superorthogonality.
        *  Patterns and pathways for movement of pieces: rows, ranks,
files, diagonals, lotus paths, lotus circles, and other patterns.
        *  Other aspects of the board, such as the color scheme used 
on actual boards.  (See file for Version 1.2)
 
        3. CHESS PIECES IN THE LOTUS ENVIRONMENT.  This article, which 
explains and illustrates the rules for movement of more than two dozen 
chess pieces as used on the lotus board.
 
        4. LOTUS BOARD CONFIGURATIONS FOR FUTURE CHESS VARIANTS CON-
TESTS.  Boards ranging from 41 to 93 cells.  (See file for Version 
1.0)
   
   2.1  CHESS VARIANTS INFORMATION
   ===============================
    
   Interested chessplayers may contact the inventor at the internet 
e-mail address: erasmus at iglou dot com.  NEUE CHESS: THE BOOK, a
compilation of more than 50 pages published in Cincinnati chess
periodicals on the subject of chess variants, is available from the
author for US $5.  (U.S.A. addresses only.  Correspondents outside
the U.S. should contact the author for shipping cost.)
 
   The world capital of chess variants is located on the web at:
http://www.chessvariants.com/index.html.
  
  
   3.0  ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
   =======================
                           ______
                          /\ e7 /\
         7              / d7 \/ f7 \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /_c7_\/      \/_g7_\
         6          | c6 |   e6   | g6 |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ c5 /\      /\ g5 /\
         5       / b5 \/ d5 \  / f5 \/ h5 \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_a5_\/      \/_e5_\/      \/_i5_\
         4   | a4 |   c4   | e4 |   g4   | i4 |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \ a3 /\      /\ e3 /\      /\ i3 /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \ b3 /\ d3 /  \ f3 /\ h3 /
                   \/_c3_\/      \/_g3_\/
         2          | c2 |   e2   | g2 |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \ c1 /\      /\ g1 /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \ d1 /\ f1 /
                          \/_e1_\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   An easy way to remember the notation system is to note that the
central rank is the fourth rank, and the central file is the 'e'
file.
 
   3.1  NOTE ABOUT SQUARES
   =======================
    
   In this article, the word "square" refers ONLY to square-shaped
cells.  It is NOT to be considered synonymous with "cell."
 
 
                       CHAPTER :II:  SUMMARY
                       =====================
 
 
   4.0  RECAP: THE LIST OF PIECES
   ==============================
    
         PIECE NAME        INVENTOR
         ==========        ========
    
   1.    Alfil             regular chess
   2.    Archbishop        Moeser
   3.    Bishop            regular chess
   4.    Colonel           Moeser
   5.    Counselor         basic concept
   6.    Crook             Moeser
   7.    Dabbaba           basic concept
   8.    Enhanced-Rook     Moeser
   9.    Ferz              regular chess
  10.    General           Moeser
  11.    Haxxaba           Moeser
  12.    Hexrider          Moeser
  13.    King              regular chess
  14.    Knight            regular chess
  15.    Lotusrider        basic concept
  16.    Lotussa           Moeser
  17.    Orthodonter       Moeser
  18.    Ouroboros         Moeser
  19.    Pawn              regular chess
  20.    Queen             regular chess
  21.    Retreatable Pawn  Persson
  22.    Rook              regular chess
  23.    Squeen            Moeser
  24.    Squirrel          Kovacs
  25.    Wazir             basic concept
  26.    Wyvern            Moeser
   
 
                    CHAPTER :III:  CHESS PIECES
                    ===========================
  
  
   A1.0  ALFIL
   ===========
    
   The predecessor of the modern Bishop, the Alfil was a standard 
piece in the first thousand years of Regular Chess.  As on a regular 
8x8 board, the Alfil moves along diagonals, jumping over the adjacent 
cell in any direction to the next (triangular) cell.  On the lotus 
board the Alfil moves on the triangle cells of diagonals.
 
   The Alfil moves ONLY on the triangles, but it can reach all 16 tri-
angular cells, or 41% of the board.  The Alfil is a (0,2) leaper,
leaping over any piece occupying the intermediate cell between the
cell the Alfil is on and the triangle the Alfil moves to.
 
   The Alfil is NOT a rider; the Alfil moves only one triangle along 
a diagonal on each move.  Compare: Alfilrider; Bishop; Wyvern.
  
   In practical use, a "bishop" piece may be used to represent an
Alfil.  Such usage is historically correct.
 
   DIAGRAM A1-1: SAMPLE ALFIL MOVES
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\  o /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/_A2_\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\  o /\      /\  o /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   |    |        |    |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ A1 /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/_x__\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram A1-1 above, Alfil "A1" on e3 can move to any of six tri-
angles (marked "x").  Alfil "A2" on f7 can move to any of three tri-
angles (marked "o").
 
 
   A2.0  ALFILRIDER
   ================
    
   The Alfilrider is a traditional concept, based on the Alfil.  It's
a rider moving along the straight-line path of cells the Alfil moves 
on.  While the Alfilrider is a rider and can be blocked from cells 
farther along its line by another piece occupying one of the cells on
that line, it's also a leaper in that it leaps over the intermediate
squares or hexagons along that line.  
 
   The Alfilrider moves only on the triangle cells.  It can potential-
ly reach all 16 triangles, or 41% of the board.  Compare: Alfil; Bish-
op; Wyvern.
 
   DIAGRAM A2-1: SAMPLE ALFILRIDER MOVE
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /_x__\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ x  /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/_x__\
         4   |    |        |    |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \ x  /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_A__\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \ x  /\      /\ x  /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   The Alfilrider on c3 in Diagram A2-1 above can move to any of seven
cells (marked "x").
 
 
   A3.0  ARCHBISHOP
   ================
    
   The Archbishop moves as an Alfilrider PLUS the intermediate hexa-
gons along the Alfilrider's diagonals.  It moves only on triangles and
hexagons, reaching all cells except squares.  It can potentially move
to 20 cells, or 51% of the board.  The Archbishop was invented in 1998
by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: Alfilrider; Bish-
op; Colonel; Wyvern.
 
   DIAGRAM A3-1: SAMPLE ARCHBISHOP MOVE
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\ x  /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   |    |   x    |    |    x   |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ AB /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/_x__\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   The Archbishop "AB" on e3 in Diagram A3-1 above can move to any of
11 cells (marked "x").
 
 
   B1.0  BISHOP
   ============
 
   The Bishop is defined as an unlimited rider moving along all lines 
of the V-W and Y axes.  In other words, an Alfilrider PLUS all inter-
mediate cells along the Alfilrider's lines; or, a Wyvern that can also 
move along the Y-axis.  The Bishop can potentially reach all 39 cells, 
or 100% of the board.  Compare: Alfil; Alfilrider; Wyvern.
 
   DIAGRAM B1-1: SAMPLE BISHOP MOVE
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\ x  /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\ x  /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/__x_\
         4   |    |   x    |    |    x   |    |
             |____|        |_x__|        |____|
             \    /\      /\BISH.\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\ x  /  \  x /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/__x_\/
         2          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/_x__\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   The Bishop on e3 in Diagram B1-1 above can move to any of 14 cells
(marked "x").
 
 
   C1.0  COLONEL
   =============
  
   The Colonel moves one cell to a contiguous triangle or hexagon.  It
moves only on triangles and hexagons.  The Colonel complements the
General but is probably a weaker piece since the triangles are not
contiguous with each other, unlike the squares.  The Colonel always
moves from a triangle to a hexagon, or from a hexagon to a triangle.
It was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
 
   The Colonel is a (1,0) rider to triangles and hexagons only.  It 
cannot leap like an Alfil to the nearest (but non-contiguous) tri-
angle.  As a result some triangles are deadends from which it can only
return to the hexagon it came from.  The Colonel can potentially reach 
all of the triangles and hexagons, for a total of 20 cells (51% of the 
board).  Compare: Alfil; Archbishop; General.
 
   DIAGRAM C1-1: SAMPLE COLONEL MOVES
   ==================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   |    |   o    |    |   C1   |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\ x  /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_C2_\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |   o    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram C1-1 above, Colonel "C1" on g4 can move to any of six
cells (marked "x"); Colonel "C2" on c3 can move to either of two cells
(marked "o").
 
 
   C2.0  COUNSELOR
   ===============
 
   The Counselor is a nonroyal King.  In other words, it has the same
move as a King, but as a piece is not royal.  This is a generic con-
cept in the field of chess variants and goes by various names.  (If a
game is being played where some other piece is already called a Coun-
selor, this piece could alternatively be called a "Chief of staff.")
 
   For examples of the Counselor's move, see Diagrams K1.1 and K1.2.
The Counselor can reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the board.  The Coun- 
selor is a (0,1) rider.  This piece was invented in 1998 by David 
Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
 
 
   C3.0  CROOK
   ===========
 
   The Crook is a stronger version of the Rook, adding true Y-axis
files to the Rook's move.  Thus the Crook is a rider that can move to 
any cell along X-axis or Z-axis orthogonal lines, or along Y-axis
superorthogonal lines.
 
   The Crook is a rider, so it can be blocked by other material occu-
pying cells along its lines.  The Crook is an Orthodonter-rider plus 
a Wazir-rider, or in other words, an orthogonal and super-orthogonal 
line-rider.  The Crook is not defined as a Rook plus an Alfilrider be-
cause the Crook does not move along the W-axis.
  
   The Crook can potentially reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the board,
but some of those cells are deadends from which the only way to exit 
is to go backwards in the direction it came from.  The Crook was in-
vented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: En-
hanced-Rook; Orthodonter; Rook; Wazir.
 
   In practical use, a "rook" piece may be used to represent a Crook.
    
   DIAGRAM C3-1: SAMPLE CROOK MOVE
   ===============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              / x  \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/_x__\
         6          |    |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/    \  / x  \/  x \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   | x  |   x    | x  |  CROOK | x  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/  x \  / x  \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |    x   |    |
                    |____|        |_x__|
                    \    /\      /\ x  /
                      \/  x \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram C3-1 above, the Crook on g4 can move to any of 18 cells
(marked "x").
 
 
   D1.0  DABBABA
   =============
 
   The Dabbaba is a traditional concept, leaping over the adjacent 
cell to the second cell along X-axis, Z-axis, or Y-axis lines only.  
It doesn't move along the V-W axes.  It moves to hexagons and X-axis 
squares only.  This range overlaps with the Haxxaba's range on hexa-
gons, but otherwise covers those squares the Haxxaba does not.
 
   The Dabbaba is defined as a (0,2) leaper.  Compare: Haxxaba; 
Orthodonter.
 
   DIAGRAM D1-1: POSSIBLE DABBABA CELLS
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          | x  |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   | x  |   x    | x  |   x    | x  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          | x  |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   Diagram D1-1 above shows all possible cells the Dabbaba can move to
(marked "x"), a total of 11 cells (28% of the board).
 
   DIAGRAM D1-2: SAMPLE DABBABA MOVES
   ==================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |  o x   | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   | o  |   x    | D1 |   D2   | o  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |  o x   | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram D1-2 above, Dabbaba "D1" on e4 can move to any of 4
cells (marked "o"); Dabbaba "D2" on g4 can move to any of 5 cells
(marked "x").
 
 
   E1.0  ENHANCED ROOK
   ===================
 
   An Enhanced Rook has the move of an ordinary Rook PLUS the right to
move one cell by a quasi-orthogonal movement to an adjacent triangle 
(if it exists) sharing a side with the cell it's on.  For some lotus
board configurations, this definition may be stated as the right to 
extend the line of orthogonal (or quasi-orthogonal) Rook movement to 
include any triangle sharing a side with the cell on either end of 
that line and reached by a straight-line continuation of that line.
 
   The Enhanced Rook may not move to a contiguous triangle sharing
only a corner (pointy end) with the cell it's on.
 
   Triangles moved to by this type of quasi-orthogonal movement may be
deadends.  The Enhanced Rook was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: Rook.
 
   DIAGRAM E1-1: SAMPLE ENHANCED-ROOK MOVE (41-cell board)
   =======================================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4 /x| x  |   x    | ER |   x    | x  |x\
           \ |____|        |____|        |____| /
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
            z  a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i  j
 
   The Enhanced Rook on e4 in Diagram E1-1 above can move to any of
8 cells (marked "x") on the 41-cell lotus board.  An ordinary Rook on
e4 on this board would not be able to move to z4, j4, e3, or e5.
 
 
   F1.0  FERZ
   ==========
  
   The predecessor of the modern Queen, the Ferz was a standard piece 
in the first thousand years of Regular Chess.  As on a regular 8x8
board, the Ferz moves to any contiguous square adjoining at a corner 
the square it's on.  On the lotus board the Ferz moves only on the 
squares of the lotus paths.  Unlike the Alfil (which moves on diago-
nals), the Ferz does not leap over hexagons (which would be a leap 
along the Z-file to a non-contiguous square).  The square the Ferz 
moves to must be contiguous.
  
   The Ferz moves ONLY on the squares, but it can reach all 19 square
cells, or 49% of the board.  The Ferz is a (0,2) leaper along a lotus 
path of squares only.  It leaps around any piece occupying the inter-
mediate triangle between the square the Ferz is on and the square it 
moves to.
 
   The Ferz is NOT a rider; it moves only one cell along a half-lotus 
path on each move.  Compare: Alfil; General.
   
   In practical use, an upside-down "rook" piece, or an extra piece
from another set of a different size or design, may be used to repre-
sent a Ferz.  (Use of a "queen" piece to represent a Ferz would be
historically correct, and some players may prefer to do that.  How-
ever, a "queen" piece is suggested for representing a Lotussa since
its movement along lotus rows makes the Lotussa apparently the most 
powerful piece in the game of traditional Lotus-39.)
 
   DIAGRAM F1-1: SAMPLE FERZ MOVES
   ===============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/  x \  / F1 \/ x  \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        | o  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/  o \  / F2 \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram F1-1 above, Ferz "F1" on f5 can move to any of four
squares (marked "x").  Ferz "F2" on f1 can move to any of two squares
(marked "o").
 
   F1.2  FERZ: HISTORICAL NOTE
   ===========================
  
   A note about the spelling:  According to Murray, the spelling 
"fers" is essentially a Middle English (and Russian) Europeanization 
of another, earlier Europeanization, "ferz," which was taken from the 
Arabic "firz" (firzAn).  In general, "fers" connoted a female piece, 
modeled on the European system of royalty.  "The name 'Queen,'" says 
Murray, "is a characteristically European innovation. ... The name has 
reacted curiously on the borrowed name 'fers,' and has everywhere al-
tered the gender."  Murray traces the Arabic "firzAn" to the Middle 
Persian "farzIn."  Before reaching Europe, the game of chess throve 
for many centuries in the Arabic-speaking Moslem world, where the 
"firz" was a male advisor (wise man or counselor) to the King, not a 
female consort.  
    
   The monumental work, A HISTORY OF CHESS, has been the definitive 
history of the game in English since its publication by H.J.R. Murray 
in 1913.  In modern times the book has been reissued by Benjamin 
Press, Box 112, Northampton, Massachusetts 01061, USA.  See pages 26 
and 423-427.
 
 
   G1.0  GENERAL
   =============
 
   The General moves one cell to the contiguous square or hexagon.  It 
adds the hexagons to the move of the Ferz.  The General moves only on 
squares or hexagons.  It complements the Colonel, but is probably a
more powerful piece because the squares are contiguous along half-
lotus lines, unlike the triangles which are noncontiguous with each 
other.  The General was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincin-
nati, Ohio, USA.
 
   The General is a (0,1) leaper to hexagons and squares only.  It can
potentially reach all of the squares and hexagons, for a total of 23 
cells (59% of the board).  Compare: Colonel; Ferz; Wazir.
 
   DIAGRAM G1-1: SAMPLE GENERAL MOVES
   ==================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |    o   |  o |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/  o \  / G2 \/  o \
               /\ x  /  \ x  /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   | x  |   G1   |x  o|    o   |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/ x  \  / x  \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram G1-1 above, General "G1" on c4 can move to any of six 
cells marked "x"; General "G2" on f5 can move to any of six cells 
marked "o."
 
 
   H1.0  HAXXABA
   =============
    
   The Haxxaba leaps over the adjacent cell to the second cell along
Z-axis or V-W axes lines only.  It doesn't move along the X-axis or
Y-axis.  It moves to hexagons and V-W axes squares only.  This range
overlaps with the Dabbaba's range on hexagons, but otherwise covers
those squares the Dabbaba does not.
 
   The Haxxaba is defined as a (0,2) leaper.  It was invented in 1998
by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: Dabbaba.
 
   DIAGRAM H1-1: POSSIBLE HAXXABA CELLS  
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              / x  \/  x \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       / x  \/  x \  / x  \/  x \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |   x    |    |    x   |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/  x \  / x  \/ x  \  / x  \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/  x \  / x  \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   Diagram H1-1 above shows all possible cells the Haxxaba can move to
(marked "x"), a total of 16 cells (41% of the board).
 
   DIAGRAM H1-2: SAMPLE HAXXABA MOVES
   ==================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/  x \  /    \/  o \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |  x  o  |    |   H1   |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/ H2 \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/  o \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram H1-2 above, Haxxaba "H1" on g4 can move to any of 5 
cells (marked "x"); Haxxaba "H2" on f3 can move to any of 3 cells
(marked "o").
 
 
   H2.0  HEXRIDER
   ==============
 
   The Hexrider is a rider along Z-axis or X-axis lines of hexagons, 
leaping over the adjacent square to the next hexagon on the line.  It
moves only on the hexagons.  This piece is obviously useful only on
bigger boards consisting of many lotus petals.  Invented 1998 by David
Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: Alfilrider.
 
 
   K1.0  KING
   ==========
 
   As on a regular 8x8 board, the King moves one cell in any direc-
tion.  The King moves to any contiguous cell; that is, to any cell 
sharing a side or corner with the cell it's on.
 
   The King can move onto any cell, so it can reach all 39 cells, or
100% of the board.  The King is a (0,1) rider.
 
   DIAGRAM K1-1: SAMPLE KING MOVE
   ==============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/  x \  / x  \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   |    |    x   |KING|   x    |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/  x \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram K1-1 above, the King on e4 can move to any of eight
cells (marked "x").
 
   DIAGRAM K1-2: MORE SAMPLE KING MOVES
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\ o  /\
         7              / K3 \/ o  \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /_o__\/      \/____\
         6          | o  |   o    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|    x   |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \ K2 /\ x  /
                   \/____\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |    x   | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram K1-2 above, King "K2" on f3 can move to any of 8 cells
(marked "x"); King "K3" on d7 can move to any of 5 cells (marked "o").
 
   When a King occupies a hexagon it can move to any of the 12 cells
of the surrounding lotus ring.
 
 
   K2.0  KNIGHT
   ============
    
   As on a regular 8x8 board, the Knight leaps over the ring of cells
surrounding the cell it's on, landing on a non-contiguous cell.  On
the lotus board the Knight moves only on hexagons.  Its move can be 
viewed as moving orthogonally along the Z-axes, leaping over the adja-
cent square to the hexagon of any immediately interlocking lotus
petal.
 
   The Knight moves only on hexagons, so it can reach only 4 cells, or
10% of the 39-cell board.  The Knight is a (0,2) leaper along ortho-
gonal lines only.
 
   DIAGRAM K2-1: SAMPLE KNIGHT MOVE
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |   x    |    |   x    |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    | KNIGHT |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram K2-1 above, the Knight on e2 can move to either c4 or 
g4 (marked "x").  It cannot move to e6 because the lotus petal sur-
rounding e6 isn't contiguous (i.e., doesn't interlock) with the lotus 
petal surrounding the e2 cell.  Also, to reach e6 the Knight would not 
be leaping orthogonally along a Z-axis, and it would not be leaping 
over only one intermediate cell to reach e6.
 
 
   L1.0  LOTUSRIDER
   ================
 
   The Lotusrider is an unlimited rider along lotus pathways.  It can
reach all cells except hexagons, or a total of 35 cells (90% of the
board).  The Lotusrider should be considered to touch each cell along
its movement only once; it isn't acceptable for a player to say that
his Lotusrider is circling around a particular lotus circle an infi-
nite number of times and then claim a draw on the grounds of "delay of
game" because the opponent's turn to move is thereby permanently post-
poned.  Compare: Ouroboros.
 
   DIAGRAM L1-1: SAMPLE LOTUSRIDER MOVE
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\*LR*/\
         7              / x  \/  o \
                      /\ x  /  \    /\
                    /__x_\/      \/__o_\
         6          | x  |        |*P* |
                    |_x__|        |____|
                   /\ x  /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /  x \/ *P*\  /  x \/ x  \
               /\ x  /  \    /\ x  /  \  x /\
             /__x_\/      \/__x_\/      \/_W__\
         4   | x  |        | x  |        |    |
             |_x__|        |_x__|        |____|
             \  x /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/ x  \  /  x \/    \  /    \/
                 \  x /\ x  /  \ P  /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/____\/
         2          | P  |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram L1-1 above, the Lotusrider on e7 can move to f7 or g7
but is blocked by its own Pawn on g6 from that cell and further move-
ment along that lotus path.  This same Lotusrider can move along the
lotus path marked "x" on the other side of the board in order to cap-
ture the Pawn of the other color on c2, or the Pawn on d3, or the
Wyvern on i5, or to stop on any of the cells along the way.
 
 
   L1.0  LOTUSSA
   =============
  
   The Lotussa is a lotus-rider with a scope of three cells along any
lotus path (wavy row) which the cell it's on is part of.  It can po-
tentially reach all cells except the hexagons, or a total of 35 cells 
(90% of the board).  It never moves onto hexagons.
 
   The Lotussa was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, USA.  It's defined as a lotus-rider with a range of 3-cells.
 
   In practical use, a "queen" piece may be used to represent a Lo-
tussa.  Players should bear in mind, of course, that when so used the 
piece is NOT a Queen and doesn't have the Queen's move.  If this
causes confusion, an upside-down "rook" piece or a piece from a set of 
a different size or design may be used to represent the Lotussa.  (See 
note in Section F1.0.)
 
   DIAGRAM L1-1: SAMPLE LOTUSSA MOVE
   =================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \ x  /\ x  /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ LO /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/ x  \  /    \/
                 \ x  /\    /  \    /\ x  /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          | x  |        | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram L1-1 above, the Lotussa on e3 can move to any of the 12
cells along lotus pathways (marked "x").  The triangle cells serve as
branching points, allowing the Lotussa's line of movement to "fork" at
those cells onto different lotus petals.  However, since the Lotussa 
is a rider, it can be blocked by other material occupying a cell along
its path.  For example, if another piece were on c3, this Lotussa on  
e3 would be blocked from the cells b3 and c2 and would exert no influ-
ence over b3 or c2 whatsoever.  Similarly, if another piece were on 
d3, this Lotussa would exert no power over b3, c3, or c2.
 
 
   O1.0  ORTHODONTER
   =================
   
   The Orthodonter moves one cell along lines of X-axis ranks and 
Y-axis files only.  This piece is a (1,0) rider along superorthogonal 
lines only.  The Orthodonter was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: Dabbaba.
 
   DIAGRAM O1-1: POSSIBLE ORTHODONTER CELLS
   ========================================
                           ______
                          /\ x  /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /_x__\/      \/_x__\
         6          | x  |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ x  /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   | x  |   x    | x  |   x    | x  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \ x  /\      /\ x  /\      /\ x  /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          | x  |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \ x  /\      /\ x  /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/_x__\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
  
   Diagram O1-1 above shows all possible cells the Orthodonter can
move to (marked "x"), a total of 27 cells (69% of the board).
 
   DIAGRAM O1-2: SAMPLE ORTHODONTER MOVES
   ======================================
                           ______
                          /\ T2 /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |   o    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_T3_\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   | $  |   x    | T1 |   x    |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram O1-2 above, Orthodonter "T1" on e4 can move to any of
four cells (marked "x"); Orthodonter "T2" on e7 can move only to e6;
Orthodonter "T3" on a5 can move only to a4.
 
 
   O2.0  OUROBOROS
   ===============
 
   The Ouroboros is a lotus path rider limited to one lotus-petal cir-
cle movement only.  That is, once the Ouroboros begins curving in a 
clockwise or counterclockwise direction around a lotus circle, it can-
not change that direction on that same move.  The effect is to limit
the Ouroboros to only one lotus circle.  Only if an Ouroboros is on a 
cell shared by two or more lotus circles does it have a choice of pos-
sible circle-paths to start its movement in.  
 
   The Ouroboros can potentially move to all cells except hexagons, or
a total of 35 cells (90% of the board).  The Ouroboros was named in 
1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: Lotusrider.
 
   DIAGRAM O2-1: SAMPLE OUROBOROS MOVE
   ===================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/    \  / x  \/ x  \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   |    |        |    |        |    |
             |____|        |_x__|        |_x__|
             \    /\      /\  x /\      /\ O  /
         3     \/    \  /    \/ x  \  /  x \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   On an empty 39-cell board, an Ouroboros on e4 can reach all 35 non-
hexagon cells, as can a Lotusrider.  But on an empty board, as in Dia-
gram O2-1 above, an Ouroboros on i3 can move only to any of 11 cells 
(marked "x"), but a Lotusrider on i3 can still move to all 35 non-
hexagon cells.
 
 
   P1.0  PAWN
   ==========
 
   Generally speaking, as in Regular Chess the Pawn moves one cell
forward (that is, one rank forward) on its file but does NOT capture 
the same way it moves.  As in Regular Chess the Pawn can be blocked 
from forward movement.  And true to the spirit of Regular Chess, there 
are many complications!
 
   P1.1  PAWN MOVEMENT
   ===================
 
        1. When a Pawn is on a square or triangle of a Y-axis file 
(a - c - e - g - i), it moves one cell forward along the Y-axis file.
That is, it must move "straight ahead" toward the opponent, or super-
orthogonally on the Y-axis.
 
        2. From squares in the oblique dimension of the hypothecated
'b', 'd', 'f', and 'h' files, the Pawn moves one cell forward on the
Z-axis onto the hexagon.  Notice that all such squares are located on
the Z-files, so this rule boils down to a prescription that when a
Pawn is located on a square cell of a Z-file and the only "forward"
movement toward the opponent's side is on the Z-file, then that's the
direction the Pawn must move in.
 
        3. From hexagons the Pawn has a choice of moving one cell for-
ward on the Y-axis file or one cell forward on the Z-axis file.
 
   P1.2  SPECIAL PAWN MOVEMENT SITUATIONS
   ======================================
  
        1. HEXAGONS.  Up to three Pawns of the same color may occupy a
home hexagon in the initial position at the start of the game.  This 
is the only situation in Lotus Chess where more than one piece may 
occupy a cell.
 
        2. DEADENDS.  If a Pawn reaches a cell which is a deadend, so
that none of the rules for movement in Section P1.1 can be applied to
allow the Pawn to move forward, then that Pawn is allowed to move 
"forward," one cell per move, along the W-axis until it reaches a 
Y-axis file or a promotion cell.  In this case "forward" is defined as
toward the 'e' file (center).
 
   Note that this rule authorizes movement but NOT capturing along the
W-axis -- unless such capturing is allowed under other rules.  Hope-
fully, giving specific examples will eliminate any possible confusion:
        (1) If a White Pawn reaches a5 or i5 (or a3 or i3 for Black),
it may move from that deadend cell to b5 or h5, respectively (b3 or h3
for Black).  It may also capture on those squares because that would 
be a normal capturing move, anyway.
        (2) If a White Pawn reaches b5 or h5 (or b3 or h3 for Black),
it may move to c5 or g5, respectively (c3 or g3 for Black).  However, 
it may not capture on those triangle cells.
 
   See Section P1.4.1 for rules governing capturing by Pawns reaching
b5 or h5 for White (or b3 or h3 for Black).
 
   P1.3  PAWN CAPTURING
   ====================
  
   In general, the Pawn's capturing move is similar to Regular Chess
in that it may capture in a forking style on either cell to the left 
or right on the next rank in a forward direction.  Specific rules for
applying this principle are as follows:
 
        1. From a square on a Y-axis file, the Pawn may capture left 
or right to either square adjoining the triangle immediately in front 
of it on the next rank.  In other words, the Pawn may capture on 
either of the Z-file squares of the next rank (toward the opponent) 
contiguous with the Pawn's own square.
 
        2. From a "backward"-pointing triangle (i.e., pointing toward
the player's own side, superorthogonally) on a Y-axis file, the Pawn 
may capture to the adjoining hexagon on the next rank.  One such tri-
angle, on the 'e' file, has two such possible captures (to both left 
and right); but on the 39-cell board, all other such triangles are in 
edge situations and only one hexagon is in range for a possible cap-
ture (analogous to the situation of the "Rook file" in Regular Chess).
 
        3. From a forward-pointing triangle (i.e., pointing toward the
opponent's side, superorthogonally) on a Y-axis file, the Pawn may 
capture left or right to either adjacent square of the SAME rank.
 
        4. From a Z-axis square, the Pawn may capture left or right to
either contiguous square adjoining the frontal or forward corners of 
the square the Pawn is on.  One such square is denoted as being on the
next rank, but the other such square is technically on the same rank.
 
        5. From a hexagon, the Pawn may capture left or right to 
either contiguous square one rank forward on the Z-axes, or left or 
right to either of the contiguous forward-pointing triangles one rank 
forward on the adjacent Y-axis files.  A Pawn on a hexagon thus has 
four possible capturing cells!
 
   P1.4  SPECIAL PAWN CAPTURING SITUATIONS
   =======================================
    
        1. DEADENDS.  See Section P1.2.2 for details of pawn movement
onto "deadend" cells.  If a White Pawn reaches b5 or h5 (or b3 or h3
for Black), it may capture on the contiguous square of the next rank
forward (i.e., toward the opponent's side).  (For example, a White 
Pawn on b5 may capture on c6, or a Black Pawn on h3 may capture on
g2.)
 
   While this may seem an odd rule, in actuality it's easily justi-
fied.  If the board were bigger, consisting of more lotus petals, such 
a capturing square would exist and be seen as available for a regular, 
z-axis-type capture.   Also, an analogous capturing situation can be 
visualized with other squares on the hypothecated 'd' and 'f' files:
For example, a White Pawn moving from d3 to d4 can capture on e4; this
capturing movement is the same directionally as a White Pawn capturing 
from b5 to c6.
 
        2. HOME HEXAGON.  When an opposing piece captures onto a play-
er's home hexagon containing multiple Pawns, it captures all Pawns 
occupying that hexagon.
 
   Note: There are only two pieces in the traditional Lotus-39 game
that can make such a capture, and furthermore, it's unlikely to hap-
pen.  The home hexagon must be empty in order for a player to bring 
a Knight into the game or to get a Rook into action; by that time the 
opponent's home hexagon is unlikely to still have multiple Pawns on 
it.
  
        3. There is no "en passant" capturing.
 
   P1.5  PAWN PROMOTION
   ====================
  
   Pawns promote on the last rank -- that is, on the opponent's (wavy)
back rank.  Pawns may promote only to pieces that exist in the ini-
tial position at the start of the game.  
 
   In other words, in a game of traditional Lotus-39, Pawns may not 
promote to Bishops or Queens even tho those are standard pieces in 
Regular Chess.  However, in a game of Modern Lotus-39, Pawns may pro-
mote to Crooks, Wyverns, or Counselors (as well as Knights or Lotus-
sas, of course), since those pieces are in each player's initial army
in that game.
 
 
   Q1.0  QUEEN
   ===========
 
   The Queen combines the moves of King, Rook, and Bishop.  That is,
an unlimited rider along the lines of all axes.  The Queen can poten-
tially reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the board.  Compare: Squeen.
 
   DIAGRAM Q1-1: SAMPLE QUEEN MOVE
   ===============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              / x  \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/_x__\
         6          |    |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ x  /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/ x  \  / x  \/ x  \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   | x  |   x    | x  | QUEEN  | x  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\ x  /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/ x  \  / x  \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |_x__|
                    \    /\      /\ x  /
                      \/ x  \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   The Queen on g4 in Diagram Q1-1 above can move to any of 26 cells
(marked "x").
 
 
   R1.0  RETREATABLE PAWN
   ======================
 
   The Retreatable Pawn has the usual forward moves and powers of a 
normal Pawn but also can move backwards one cell.  It cannot capture
backwards, so it cannot check in a backwards direction.  According to
A.S.M. Dickins, it may promote normally on the last rank, or it may 
remain on the last rank as a Pawn waiting to retreat.  While it re-
mains there it may be captured.  Presumably at the beginning of a 
later turn the player can choose to promote the Pawn sitting on the 
last rank.  The Retreatable Pawn was invented by R. Perrson.
 
 
   R2.0  ROOK
   ==========
  
   As on a regular 8x8 board, the Rook can move to any cell on any
orthogonal line that includes the cell the Rook is on.  On the lotus
board the Rook can move to any cell along X-axis or Z-axis lines.
 
   The Rook moves ONLY on squares or hexagons, but potentially it can
reach all 19 squares and all four hexagons for a total of 23 cells, or
59% of the board.  The Rook is a rider along orthogonal lines, so it
can be blocked by other material occupying cells on those lines.  The
Rook is defined as a wazir-rider or orthogonal row-rider.
  
   The Rook never reaches the triangle cells, so it cannot affect 
pieces occupying triangles.  Also, some squares are deadends, from 
which the only way to exit is to go "backwards" in the direction it 
came from.  Compare: Crook; Enhanced-Rook; Wazir.
 
   DIAGRAM R2-1: SAMPLE ROOK MOVE
   ==============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\  * /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|   *    |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\  * /  \  * /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        |    |        |    |
             |_*__|   *    |_*__|  ROOK  |_*__|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \ *  /\  * /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|   *    |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/  * \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram R2-1 above, the Rook on g4 can move to any of the 12 
cells (marked "x") along the 4th rank or the two Z-files.  The Rook
is most powerful when stationed on hexagons!  The Rook can be consid-
ered as mainly a Z-axis rider; it must move to a hexagon in order to 
exert any power over an X-axis rank.
 
 
   S1.0  SQUEEN
   ============
  
   The Squeen combines the moves of King, Rook, and Alfilrider.  In
other words, an unlimited rider along X-axis and Z-axis rows, plus a
rider on triangle cells only along the V-W and Y-axes.  It's slightly
weaker than a Queen.
 
   The Squeen can potentially reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the 
board.  It was named in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
Compare: Queen.
  
   DIAGRAM S1-1: SAMPLE SQUEEN MOVE
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              / x  \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/_x__\
         6          |    |    x   |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ x  /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/    \  / x  \/ x  \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   | x  |   x    | x  | SQUEEN | x  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\ x  /
         3     \/    \  /    \/ x  \  / x  \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |   x    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\ x  /
                      \/ x  \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   The Squeen on g4 in Diagram Q1-1 above can move to any of 22 cells
(marked "x").
 
 
   S2.0  SQUIRREL
   ==============
 
   The Squirrel is a leaper which, according to A.S.M. Dickins, was
invented by N. Kovacs of Budapest, Hungary.  On a regular 8x8 board
of squares the Squirrel can leap to all the squares of the ring of 16 
squares immediately surrounding the ring of 8 squares adjacent to the 
square it's on.  Applying that precedent to the lotus board, the 
Squirrel's move is defined here as a leap to any cell two cells away.  
In other words, any cell a King could reach in two moves, but exclud-
ing any contiguous cell.
 
   The Squirrel can potentially reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the
board.  The Squirrel is a (0,2) ringer.
 
   DIAGRAM S2-1: SAMPLE SQUIRREL MOVE
   ==================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          | x  |   x    |  x |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ x  /\      /\  x /\
         5       / x  \/    \  /    \/  x \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/____\/      \/__x_\
         4   | x  |        |SQIR|        |    |
             |____|        |-REL|        |____|
             \ x  /\      /\    /\      /\  x /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \ x  /\    /  \    /\  x /
                   \/_x__\/      \/__x_\/
         2          | x  |   x    |  x |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   The Squirrel on e4 in Diagram S2-1 above can move to any of 20 
cells (marked "x").  As in regular chess, the Squirrel on e4 cannot 
move to the contiguous cells: c4-d5-e5-f5-g4-f3-e3-d3.
 
 
   W1.0  WAZIR
   ===========
    
   The Wazir was a standard piece in the first thousand years of Regu-
lar Chess.  The Wazir moves one cell to an adjoining square or hexa-
gon, but only along the orthogonal rows of the X-axis and Z-axis.  The
Wazir never moves onto triangles.
  
   A General covers the same total territory as the Wazir but is more 
powerful because it can move to any contiguous square, including those 
not reached by an X-axis or Z-axis movement.  Whereas a General or 
Ferz might reach certain squares in one move, a Wazir might need up to 
four moves.  Some squares are deadends.
 
   Whereas A.S.M. Dickins defined a Wazir as a (0,1) leaper on an 8x8
checkerboard, on the lotus board it is more appropriately labeled as a 
(1,0) rider along orthogonal lines only.  It can potentially reach all 
of the squares and hexagons, for a total of 23 cells (59% of the 
board).  Compare: General; Rook.
 
   DIAGRAM W1-1: SAMPLE WAZIR MOVES
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/ W2 \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |   o    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\  x /  \ x  /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |  x |   W1   | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/  x \  / x  \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram W1-1 above, Wazir "W1" on c4 can move to any of six 
cells (marked "x"); Wazir "W2" on f7 can move only to the e6 cell
(marked "o").
 
 
   W2.0  WYVERN
   ============
  
   The Wyvern can be viewed as either an enhanced Alfilrider or as a
weakened Bishop.  The Wyvern is a rider along all cells of the V-axis
and W-axis only.  Like a Bishop in Regular Chess, it moves only in 
"oblique" directions, covering all cells of the "diagonals" with its 
VW-axis movement.  Unlike the Alfilrider and Bishop on the lotus 
board, the Wyvern does not move in the Y-axis direction.
  
   The Wyvern is a VW-axis-rider; as a rider it can be blocked by other 
material occupying cells on its lines.  It can reach all cells except 
the 7 squares on the X-axis ranks, for a total of 32 cells, or 82% of 
the board.  
  
   The Wyvern was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, USA.  Compare: Alfilrider; Bishop.
 
   In practical use, a "bishop" piece may be used to represent a
Wyvern.
 
   DIAGRAM W2-1: SAMPLE WYVERN MOVE
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\  x /\
         5       /    \/    \  /  x \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   |    | WYVERN |    |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \ x  /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \  x /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/__x_\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/
  
               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram W2-1 above, the Wyvern on c4 can move to any of 8 cells
(marked "x").
 
   [Version 1.0, published December 10, 1998.]
 

Written by David Moeser.
This is the latest version of the description of the pieces in Lotus-39. There also is an older description, that only contains information on the standard pieces in Lotus-39. The description above contains more information, with details on 26 fairy chess pieces.
A hardcopy printout of the four main files dealing with Lotus Chess is available from the author for US $14.95 (includes shipping cost to U.S. addresses only). "Lotus Chess: The Book" is spiral-bound and also contains a full-sized, full-color board for use in playing the game. For address information, contact inventor David Moeser by e-mail at: erasmus at iglou dot com.
WWW page created: December 18, 1998. Last modified: January 4, 1999.