The Chess Variant Pages



  
                                 ** 
  
                                ****
  
                CHESS PIECES IN THE LOTUS ENVIRONMENT                          
    
                                ****
  
                         Copyright (c) 1998
  
                           by david moeser
  
                                ****
  
                                 **
  
  
  
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
                          =================
 
 
CHAPTER :I:  INTRODUCTION
=========================   
   1.0    Overview
   2.0    General Information  
   2.1    Chess Variants Information
   3.0    Algebraic Notation
   3.1    Note About Squares
  
CHAPTER :II:  CHESS PIECES
==========================
  A1.0    Alfil
  A1.1    Sample Alfil Moves
  A2.0    Alfilrider
  A2.1    Sample Alfilrider Move
  A3.0    Archbishop
  A3.1    Sample Archbishop Move
  B1.0    Bishop
  B1.1    Sample Bishop Move
  C1.0    Colonel
  C1.1    Sample Colonel Moves
  C2.0    Counselor
  C3.0    Crook
  C3.1    Sample Crook Move
  D1.0    Dabbaba
  D1.1    Possible Dabbaba Cells
  D1.2    Sample Dabbaba Moves
  E1.0    Enhanced-Rook
  E1.1    Sample Enhanced-Rook Move
  F1.0    Ferz
  F1.1    Sample Ferz Moves
  F1.2    Ferz: Historical Note
  G1.0    General
  G1.1    Sample General Moves
  H1.0    Haxxaba
  H1.1    Possible Haxxaba Cells
  H1.2    Sample Haxxaba Moves
  H2.0    Hexrider
  K1.0    King
  K1.1    Sample King Move
  K1.2    More Sample King Moves
  K2.0    Knight
  K2.1    Sample Knight Move
  L1.0    Lotusrider
  L1.1    Sample Lotusrider Move
  L2.0    Lotussa
  L2.1    Sample Lotussa Move
  O1.0    Orthodonter
  O1.1    Possible Orthodonter Cells
  O1.2    Sample Orthodonter Moves
  O2.0    Ouroboros
  O2.1    Sample Ouroboros Move
  P1.0    Pawn
  P1.1    Pawn Movement
  P1.2    Special Pawn Movement Situations
  P1.2.1  Hexagons
  P1.2.2  Deadends
  P1.3    Pawn Capturing
  P1.4    Special Pawn Capturing Situations
  P1.4.1  Same Rank
  P1.4.2  Deadends
  P1.5    Pawn Promtion
  Q1.0    Queen
  Q1.1    Sample Queen Move
  R1.0    Rook
  R1.1    Sample Rook Move
  S1.0    Squeen
  S1.1    Sample Squeen Move
  W1.0    Wazir
  W1.1    Sample Wazir Moves
  W2.0    Wyvern
  W2.1    Sample Wyvern Move
  
  
                     CHAPTER :I:  INTRODUCTION
                     =========================
  
  
   1.0  OVERVIEW
   =============
   
   Lotus-39 is a chess game played on a lotus board consisting of 39
squares, called cells.  The rules of the game are substantially the 
same as Regular Chess.  Except for one piece, Lotus-39 uses estab-
lished chess pieces used in the present or past in Regular Chess, and 
the movements of the pieces are as analogous to the concepts of Regu-
lar Chess as possible.  A regular chess set can be used. 
    
  
   2.0  GENERAL INFORMATION: VERSION 0.6
   =====================================
 
   Lotus-39 Chess was invented by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
USA, in June 1998 for submission in the 1998 Chess Variants Contest.
This article is being published as of November 30, 1998, along with
other articles detailing additional aspects of Lotus Chess.  Titles
included in this set are:
 
        1. LOTUS-39 CHESS.  Rules for playing the game.  (See file
for Version 1.0)
 
        2. THE LOTUS BOARD: NOTATION & DIRECTIONAL CONCEPTS.  Details
on these subjects: 
        *  Notation for the lotus board.
        *  Vectors and directional concepts.
        *  Orthogonality and superorthogonality.
        *  Patterns and pathways for movement of pieces: rows, ranks,
files, diagonals, lotus paths, lotus circles, and other patterns.
        *  Other aspects of the board, such as the color scheme used 
on actual boards.  (See file for Version 1.2)
 
        3. CHESS PIECES IN THE LOTUS ENVIRONMENT.  This article, which 
explains and illustrates the rules for movement of more than two dozen 
chess pieces as used on the lotus board.
 
   Note:  At the present time, this file includes details only for 
pieces used in traditional or Modern Lotus-39.  Version 1.0 will have
details on other pieces derived from traditional or variants concepts.
(Note added by Hans Bodlaender: This 1.0 version of this
file is also available from this website. Click on this sentence.)
   
   2.1  CHESS VARIANTS INFORMATION
   ===============================
    
   Interested chessplayers may contact the inventor at the internet 
e-mail address: erasmus at iglou dot com.  NEUE CHESS: THE BOOK, a
compilation of more than 50 pages published in Cincinnati chess
periodicals on the subject of chess variants, is available from the
author for US $5.  (U.S.A. addresses only.  Correspondents outside
the U.S. should contact the author for shipping cost.)
 
   The world capital of chess variants is located on the web at:
http://www.chessvariants.com/index.html.
  
  
   3.0  ALGEBRAIC NOTATION
   =======================
                           ______
                          /\ e7 /\
         7              / d7 \/ f7 \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /_c7_\/      \/_g7_\
         6          | c6 |   e6   | g6 |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\ c5 /\      /\ g5 /\
         5       / b5 \/ d5 \  / f5 \/ h5 \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_a5_\/      \/_e5_\/      \/_i5_\
         4   | a4 |   c4   | e4 |   g4   | i4 |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \ a3 /\      /\ e3 /\      /\ i3 /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \ b3 /\ d3 /  \ f3 /\ h3 /
                   \/_c3_\/      \/_g3_\/
         2          | c2 |   e2   | g2 |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \ c1 /\      /\ g1 /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \ d1 /\ f1 /
                          \/_e1_\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   An easy way to remember the notation system is to note that the
central rank is the fourth rank, and the central file is the 'e'
file.
 
   3.1  NOTE ABOUT SQUARES
   =======================
    
   In this article, the word "square" refers ONLY to square-shaped
cells.  It is NOT to be considered synonymous with "cell."
 
 
                     CHAPTER :II:  CHESS PIECES
                     ==========================
 
 
   A1.0  ALFIL
   ===========
    
   The predecessor of the modern Bishop, the Alfil was a standard 
piece in the first thousand years of Regular Chess.  As on a regular 
8x8 board, the Alfil moves along diagonals, jumping over the adjacent 
cell in any direction to the next (triangular) cell.  On the lotus 
board the Alfil moves on the triangle cells of diagonals.
 
   The Alfil moves ONLY on the triangles, but it can reach all 16 tri-
angular cells, or 41% of the board.  The Alfil is a (0,2) leaper,
leaping over any piece occupying the intermediate cell between the
cell the Alfil is on and the triangle the Alfil moves to.
 
   The Alfil is NOT a rider; the Alfil moves only one triangle along 
a diagonal on each move.  Compare: Alfilrider; Bishop; Wyvern.
  
   In practical use, a "bishop" piece may be used to represent an
Alfil.  Such usage is historically correct.
 
   DIAGRAM A1-1: SAMPLE ALFIL MOVES
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\  o /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/_A2_\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\  o /\      /\  o /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/_x__\/      \/_x__\
         4   |    |        |    |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ A1 /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/_x__\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram A1-1 above, Alfil "A1" on e3 can move to any of six tri-
angles (marked "x").  Alfil "A2" on f7 can move to any of three tri-
angles (marked "o").
 
 
   C2.0  COUNSELOR
   ===============
 
   The Counselor is a nonroyal King.  In other words, it has the same
move as a King, but as a piece is not royal.  This is a generic con-
cept in the field of chess variants and goes by various names.  (If a
game is being played where some other piece is already called a Coun-
selor, this piece could alternatively be called a "Chief of staff.")
 
   For examples of the Counselor's move, see Diagrams K1.1 and K1.2.
The Counselor can reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the board.  The Coun- 
selor is a (0,1) rider.  This piece was invented in 1998 by David 
Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
 
 
   C3.0  CROOK
   ===========
 
   The Crook is a stronger version of the Rook, adding true Y-axis
files to the Rook's move.  Thus the Crook is a rider that can move to 
any cell along X-axis or Z-axis orthogonal lines, or along Y-axis
superorthogonal lines.
 
   The Crook is a rider, so it can be blocked by other material occu-
pying cells along its lines.  The Crook is an Orthodonter-rider plus 
a Wazir-rider, or in other words, an orthogonal and super-orthogonal 
line-rider.  The Crook is not defined as a Rook plus an Alfilrider be-
cause the Crook does not move along the W-axis.
  
   The Crook can potentially reach all 39 cells, or 100% of the board,
but some of those cells are deadends from which the only way to exit 
is to go backwards in the direction it came from.  The Crook was in-
vented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.  Compare: En-
hanced-Rook; Orthodonter; Rook; Wazir.
 
   In practical use, a "rook" piece may be used to represent a Crook.
    
   DIAGRAM C3-1: SAMPLE CROOK MOVE   
   ===============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              / x  \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/_x__\
         6          |    |   x    | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\ x  /\
         5       /    \/    \  / x  \/  x \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   | x  |   x    | x  |  CROOK | x  |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/  x \  / x  \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |    x   |    |
                    |____|        |_x__|
                    \    /\      /\ x  /
                      \/  x \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram C3-1 above, the Crook on g4 can move to any of 18 cells
(marked "x").
 
 
   F1.0  FERZ
   ==========
  
   The predecessor of the modern Queen, the Ferz was a standard piece 
in the first thousand years of Regular Chess.  As on a regular 8x8
board, the Ferz moves to any contiguous square adjoining at a corner 
the square it's on.  On the lotus board the Ferz moves only on the 
squares of the lotus paths.  Unlike the Alfil (which moves on diago-
nals), the Ferz does not leap over hexagons (which would be a leap 
along the Z-file to a non-contiguous square).  The square the Ferz 
moves to must be contiguous.
  
   The Ferz moves ONLY on the squares, but it can reach all 19 square
cells, or 49% of the board.  The Ferz is a (0,2) leaper along a lotus 
path of squares only.  It leaps around any piece occupying the inter-
mediate triangle between the square the Ferz is on and the square it 
moves to.
 
   The Ferz is NOT a rider; it moves only one cell along a half-lotus 
path on each move.  Compare: Alfil; General.
   
   In practical use, an upside-down "rook" piece, or an extra piece
from another set of a different size or design, may be used to repre-
sent a Ferz.  (Use of a "queen" piece to represent a Ferz would be
historically correct, and some players may prefer to do that.  How-
ever, a "queen" piece is suggested for representing a Lotussa since
its movement along lotus rows makes the Lotussa apparently the most 
powerful piece in the game of traditional Lotus-39.)
 
   DIAGRAM F1-1: SAMPLE FERZ MOVES
   ===============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/  x \  / F1 \/ x  \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        | o  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/  o \  / F2 \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram F1-1 above, Ferz "F1" on f5 can move to any of four
squares (marked "x").  Ferz "F2" on f1 can move to any of two squares
(marked "o").
 
   F1.2  FERZ: HISTORICAL NOTE
   ===========================
  
   A note about the spelling:  According to Murray, the spelling 
"fers" is essentially a Middle English (and Russian) Europeanization 
of another, earlier Europeanization, "ferz," which was taken from the 
Arabic "firz" (firzAn).  In general, "fers" connoted a female piece, 
modeled on the European system of royalty.  "The name 'Queen,'" says 
Murray, "is a characteristically European innovation. ... The name has 
reacted curiously on the borrowed name 'fers,' and has everywhere al-
tered the gender."  Murray traces the Arabic "firzAn" to the Middle 
Persian "farzIn."  Before reaching Europe, the game of chess throve 
for many centuries in the Arabic-speaking Moslem world, where the 
"firz" was a male advisor (wise man or counselor) to the King, not a 
female consort.  
    
   The monumental work, A HISTORY OF CHESS, has been the definitive 
history of the game in English since its publication by H.J.R. Murray 
in 1913.  In modern times the book has been reissued by Benjamin 
Press, Box 112, Northampton, Massachusetts 01061, USA.  See pages 26 
and 423-427.
 
 
   K1.0  KING
   ==========
    
   As on a regular 8x8 board, the King moves one cell in any direc-
tion.  The King moves to any contiguous cell; that is, to any cell 
sharing a side or corner with the cell it's on.
 
   The King can move onto any cell, so it can reach all 39 cells, or
100% of the board.  The King is a (0,1) rider.
 
   DIAGRAM K1-1: SAMPLE KING MOVE
   ==============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/  x \  / x  \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   |    |    x   |KING|   x    |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/  x \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram K1-1 above, the King on e4 can move to any of eight
cells (marked "x").
 
   DIAGRAM K1-2: MORE SAMPLE KING MOVES
   ====================================
                           ______
                          /\ o  /\
         7              / K3 \/ o  \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /_o__\/      \/____\
         6          | o  |   o    |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|    x   |____|
             \    /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \ K2 /\ x  /
                   \/____\/      \/_x__\/
         2          |    |    x   | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram K1-2 above, King "K2" on f3 can move to any of 8 cells
(marked "x"); King "K3" on d7 can move to any of 5 cells (marked "o").
 
   When a King occupies a hexagon it can move to any of the 12 cells
of the surrounding lotus ring.
 
 
   K2.0  KNIGHT
   ============
    
   As on a regular 8x8 board, the Knight leaps over the ring of cells
surrounding the cell it's on, landing on a non-contiguous cell.  On
the lotus board the Knight moves only on hexagons.  Its move can be 
viewed as moving orthogonally along the Z-axes, leaping over the adja-
cent square to the hexagon of any immediately interlocking lotus
petal.
 
   The Knight moves only on hexagons, so it can reach only 4 cells, or
10% of the 39-cell board.  The Knight is a (0,2) leaper along ortho-
gonal lines only.
 
   DIAGRAM K2-1: SAMPLE KNIGHT MOVE
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |   x    |    |   x    |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \    /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    | KNIGHT |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram K2-1 above, the Knight on e2 can move to either c4 or 
g4 (marked "x").  It cannot move to e6 because the lotus petal sur-
rounding e6 isn't contiguous (i.e., doesn't interlock) with the lotus 
petal surrounding the e2 cell.  Also, to reach e6 the Knight would not 
be leaping orthogonally along a Z-axis, and it would not be leaping 
over only one intermediate cell to reach e6.
    
 
   L1.0  LOTUSSA
   =============
     
   The Lotussa is a lotus-rider with a scope of three cells along any
lotus path (wavy row) which the cell it's on is part of.  It can po-
tentially reach all cells except the hexagons, or a total of 35 cells 
(90% of the board).  It never moves onto hexagons.
 
   The Lotussa was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, USA.  It's defined as a lotus-rider with a range of 3-cells.
 
   In practical use, a "queen" piece may be used to represent a Lo-
tussa.  Players should bear in mind, of course, that when so used the 
piece is NOT a Queen and doesn't have the Queen's move.  If this
causes confusion, an upside-down "rook" piece or a piece from a set of 
a different size or design may be used to represent the Lotussa.  (See 
note in Section F1.0.)
 
   DIAGRAM L1-1: SAMPLE LOTUSSA MOVE
   =================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \ x  /\ x  /  \    /\
             /____\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        | x  |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \    /\      /\ LO /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  / x  \/ x  \  /    \/
                 \ x  /\    /  \    /\ x  /
                   \/_x__\/      \/_x__\/
         2          | x  |        | x  |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram L1-1 above, the Lotussa on e3 can move to any of the 12
cells along lotus pathways (marked "x").  The triangle cells serve as
branching points, allowing the Lotussa's line of movement to "fork" at
those cells onto different lotus petals.  However, since the Lotussa 
is a rider, it can be blocked by other material occupying a cell along
its path.  For example, if another piece were on c3, this Lotussa on  
e3 would be blocked from the cells b3 and c2 and would exert no influ-
ence over b3 or c2 whatsoever.  Similarly, if another piece were on 
d3, this Lotussa would exert no power over b3, c3, or c2.
 
 
   P1.0  PAWN
   ==========
 
   Generally speaking, as in Regular Chess the Pawn moves one cell
forward (that is, one rank forward) on its file but does NOT capture 
the same way it moves.  As in Regular Chess the Pawn can be blocked 
from forward movement.  And true to the spirit of Regular Chess, there 
are many complications!
 
   P1.1  PAWN MOVEMENT
   ===================
 
        1. When a Pawn is on a square or triangle of a Y-axis file 
(a - c - e - g - i), it moves one cell forward along the Y-axis file.
That is, it must move "straight ahead" toward the opponent, or super-
orthogonally on the Y-axis.
 
        2. From squares in the oblique dimension of the hypothecated
'b', 'd', 'f', and 'h' files, the Pawn moves one cell forward on the
Z-axis onto the hexagon.  Notice that all such squares are located on
the Z-files, so this rule boils down to a prescription that when a
Pawn is located on a square cell of a Z-file and the only "forward"
movement toward the opponent's side is on the Z-file, then that's the
direction the Pawn must move in.
 
        3. From hexagons the Pawn has a choice of moving one cell for-
ward on the Y-axis file or one cell forward on the Z-axis file.
 
   P1.2  SPECIAL PAWN MOVEMENT SITUATIONS
   ======================================
  
        1. HEXAGONS.  Up to three Pawns of the same color may occupy a
home hexagon in the initial position at the start of the game.  This 
is the only situation in Lotus Chess where more than one piece may 
occupy a cell.
 
        2. DEADENDS.  If a Pawn reaches a cell which is a deadend, so
that none of the rules for movement in Section P1.1 can be applied to
allow the Pawn to move forward, then that Pawn is allowed to move 
"forward," one cell per move, along the W-axis until it reaches a 
Y-axis file or a promotion cell.  In this case "forward" is defined as
toward the 'e' file (center).
 
   Note that this rule authorizes movement but NOT capturing along the
W-axis -- unless such capturing is allowed under other rules.  Hope-
fully, giving specific examples will eliminate any possible confusion:
        (1) If a White Pawn reaches a5 or i5 (or a3 or i3 for Black),
it may move from that deadend cell to b5 or h5, respectively (b3 or h3
for Black).  It may also capture on those squares because that would 
be a normal capturing move, anyway.
        (2) If a White Pawn reaches b5 or h5 (or b3 or h3 for Black),
it may move to c5 or g5, respectively (c3 or g3 for Black).  However, 
it may not capture on those triangle cells.
 
   See Section P1.4.1 for rules governing capturing by Pawns reaching
b5 or h5 for White (or b3 or h3 for Black).
 
   P1.3  PAWN CAPTURING
   ====================
  
   In general, the Pawn's capturing move is similar to Regular Chess
in that it may capture in a forking style on either cell to the left 
or right on the next rank in a forward direction.  Specific rules for
applying this principle are as follows:
 
        1. From a square on a Y-axis file, the Pawn may capture left 
or right to either square adjoining the triangle immediately in front 
of it on the next rank.  In other words, the Pawn may capture on 
either of the Z-file squares of the next rank (toward the opponent) 
contiguous with the Pawn's own square.
 
        2. From a "backward"-pointing triangle (i.e., pointing toward
the player's own side, superorthogonally) on a Y-axis file, the Pawn 
may capture to the adjoining hexagon on the next rank.  One such tri-
angle, on the 'e' file, has two such possible captures (to both left 
and right); but on the 39-cell board, all other such triangles are in 
edge situations and only one hexagon is in range for a possible cap-
ture (analogous to the situation of the "Rook file" in Regular Chess).
 
        3. From a forward-pointing triangle (i.e., pointing toward the
opponent's side, superorthogonally) on a Y-axis file, the Pawn may 
capture left or right to either adjacent square of the SAME rank.
 
        4. From a Z-axis square, the Pawn may capture left or right to
either contiguous square adjoining the frontal or forward corners of 
the square the Pawn is on.  One such square is denoted as being on the
next rank, but the other such square is technically on the same rank.
 
        5. From a hexagon, the Pawn may capture left or right to 
either contiguous square one rank forward on the Z-axes, or left or 
right to either of the contiguous forward-pointing triangles one rank 
forward on the adjacent Y-axis files.  A Pawn on a hexagon thus has 
four possible capturing cells!
 
   P1.4  SPECIAL PAWN CAPTURING SITUATIONS
   =======================================
    
        1. DEADENDS.  See Section P1.2.2 for details of pawn movement
onto "deadend" cells.  If a White Pawn reaches b5 or h5 (or b3 or h3
for Black), it may capture on the contiguous square of the next rank
forward (i.e., toward the opponent's side).  (For example, a White 
Pawn on b5 may capture on c6, or a Black Pawn on h3 may capture on
g2.)
 
   While this may seem an odd rule, in actuality it's easily justi-
fied.  If the board were bigger, consisting of more lotus petals, such 
a capturing square would exist and be seen as available for a regular, 
z-axis-type capture.   Also, an analogous capturing situation can be 
visualized with other squares on the hypothecated 'd' and 'f' files:
For example, a White Pawn moving from d3 to d4 can capture on e4; this
capturing movement is the same directionally as a White Pawn capturing 
from b5 to c6.
 
        2. HOME HEXAGON.  When an opposing piece captures onto a play-
er's home hexagon containing multiple Pawns, it captures all Pawns 
occupying that hexagon.
 
   Note: There are only two pieces in the traditional Lotus-39 game
that can make such a capture, and furthermore, it's unlikely to hap-
pen.  The home hexagon must be empty in order for a player to bring 
a Knight into the game or to get a Rook into action; by that time the 
opponent's home hexagon is unlikely to still have multiple Pawns on 
it.
  
        3. There is no "en passant" capturing.
 
   P1.5  PAWN PROMOTION
   ====================
  
   Pawns promote on the last rank -- that is, on the opponent's (wavy)
back rank.  Pawns may promote only to pieces that exist in the ini-
tial position at the start of the game.  
 
   In other words, in a game of traditional Lotus-39, Pawns may not 
promote to Bishops or Queens even tho those are standard pieces in 
Regular Chess.  However, in a game of Modern Lotus-39, Pawns may pro-
mote to Crooks, Wyverns, or Counselors (as well as Knights or Lotus-
sas, of course), since those pieces are in each player's initial army
in that game.
  
 
   R1.0  ROOK
   ==========
  
   As on a regular 8x8 board, the Rook can move to any cell on any
orthogonal line that includes the cell the Rook is on.  On the lotus
board the Rook can move to any cell along X-axis or Z-axis lines.
 
   The Rook moves ONLY on squares or hexagons, but potentially it can
reach all 19 squares and all four hexagons for a total of 23 cells, or
59% of the board.  The Rook is a rider along orthogonal lines, so it
can be blocked by other material occupying cells on those lines.  The
Rook is defined as a wazir-rider or orthogonal row-rider.
  
   The Rook never reaches the triangle cells, so it cannot affect 
pieces occupying triangles.  Also, some squares are deadends, from 
which the only way to exit is to go "backwards" in the direction it 
came from.  Compare: Crook; Enhanced-Rook; Wazir.
 
   DIAGRAM R1-1: SAMPLE ROOK MOVE
   ==============================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\  * /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|   *    |____|
                   /\    /\      /\    /\
         5       /    \/    \  /    \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\  * /  \  * /\
             /____\/      \/____\/      \/____\
         4   |    |        |    |        |    |
             |_*__|   *    |_*__|  ROOK  |_*__|
             \    /\      /\    /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \ *  /\  * /
                   \/____\/      \/____\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|   *    |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/  * \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram R1-1 above, the Rook on g4 can move to any of the 12 
cells (marked "x") along the 4th rank or the two Z-files.  The Rook
is most powerful when stationed on hexagons!  The Rook can be consid-
ered as mainly a Z-axis rider; it must move to a hexagon in order to 
exert any power over an X-axis rank.
 
 
   W2.0  WYVERN
   ============
  
   The Wyvern can be viewed as either an enhanced Alfilrider or as a
weakened Bishop.  The Wyvern is a rider along all cells of the V-axis
and W-axis only.  Like a Bishop in Regular Chess, it moves only in 
"oblique" directions, covering all cells of the "diagonals" with its 
VW-axis movement.  Unlike the Alfilrider and Bishop on the lotus 
board, the Wyvern does not move in the Y-axis direction.
  
   The Wyvern is a VW-axis-rider; as a rider it can be blocked by other 
material occupying cells on its lines.  It can reach all cells except 
the 7 squares on the X-axis ranks, for a total of 32 cells, or 82% of 
the board.  
  
   The Wyvern was invented in 1998 by David Moeser of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, USA.  Compare: Alfilrider; Bishop.
 
   In practical use, a "bishop" piece may be used to represent a
Wyvern.
 
   DIAGRAM W2-1: SAMPLE WYVERN MOVE    
   ================================
                           ______
                          /\    /\
         7              /    \/    \
                      /\    /  \    /\
                    /____\/      \/____\
         6          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                   /\    /\      /\  x /\
         5       /    \/    \  /  x \/    \
               /\    /  \    /\    /  \    /\
             /_x__\/      \/_x__\/      \/____\
         4   |    | WYVERN |    |        |    |
             |____|        |____|        |____|
             \ x  /\      /\ x  /\      /\    /
         3     \/    \  /    \/    \  /    \/
                 \    /\    /  \  x /\    /
                   \/____\/      \/__x_\/
         2          |    |        |    |
                    |____|        |____|
                    \    /\      /\    /
                      \/    \  /    \/
         1              \    /\    /
                          \/____\/

               a   b  c  d   e   f  g  h   i
 
   In Diagram W2-1 above, the Wyvern on c4 can move to any of 8 cells
(marked "x").
 
   [Version 0.6, published November 30, 1998.]
 
 

Written by David Moeser (c).
This is part of a submission to the contest to design a chess variant on a board with 39 squares.
This version of the description of the pieces of Lotus Chess deals only with the regular pieces. There is also a description, that contains more information, including information on many non-standard pieces.
A hardcopy printout of the four main files dealing with Lotus Chess is available from the author for US $14.95 (includes shipping cost to U.S. addresses only). "Lotus Chess: The Book" is spiral-bound and also contains a full-sized, full-color board for use in playing the game. For address information, contact inventor David Moeser by e-mail at: erasmus at iglou dot com.
WWW page created: December 7, 1998. Last modified: January 4, 1999.